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  • 454-29-5 br Once the Maximum Likelihood Minimum


    Once the Maximum Likelihood Minimum Redundant attributes are obtained, then an ensemble classification model is used to improve the lung cancer diagnosis accuracy for big data. In this 454-29-5 work, an ensemble of WONN-MLB attributes is applied to achieve the objective of lung cancer diagnosis accuracy with minimum time and error.
    An artificial neuron consists of ‘n’ synapses related to the input attributes (Att1, Att2, . . . , Attn) and each input attribute has the corresponding weight ‘wi’. Here, the signal at input i is multi-plied by the weight wi, then the summation of weighted inputs and a linear combination of the weighted inputs are obtained. Moreover, a bias ‘bs’ is summed to the linear combination and a weighted sum ‘ws’ is obtained as follows: 
    From Eq. (13), the final ensemble learning classifier is measured as a weighted majority vote of the weak classifiers ‘f (s)’, where each classifier is assigned by weighting ‘kt ’. The pseudo code of ensemble classification is given in algorithm 2.
    The Boosted Weighted Optimized Neural Network Ensemble Classification Algorithm is introduced to classify the LCD with minimum error, which is given in algorithm 2. In first step for each maximum likelihood minimum redundant attributes weights are initialized. Then, a weight initialization and the weighted sum value is obtained. Moreover, a conditional checking is performed to see whether the weighted sum is less than or equal to the optimal weight Mana et al. [3]. Upon unsuccessful checking, the weighted sum value with different weights being initialized is obtained. Then, the process is continued by applying a boosting technique. Here, three steps are carried out. In first step, a weak classifier with low weighted error is measured. Then, in second step, a new component based on error function is obtained. Finally, in third step, final ensemble learning classifier is applied to the new component. Hence, the lung cancer disease diagnosis accuracy is said to be improved with minimum error rate.
    (8) 4. Experimental settings and results discussion
    To evaluate the performance of proposed WONN-MLB ap- proach the Thoracic Surgery Data Set [2]is used. The proposed (9) WONN-MLB approach is implemented in JAVA platform using Weka tool. The Thoracic Surgery Data Dataset is dedicated to clas-sification problem related to the post-operative life expectancy in the lung cancer patients. The data was collected retrospectively at
    (10) Wroclaw Thoracic Surgery Centre. The patient data includes those (11) who underwent major lung resections for primary lung cancer in the years 2007–2011. The Centre mainly concentrates on the Pulmonary Diseases which is associated with the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Medical University of Wroclaw and Lower-Silesian Centre, Poland. However, the research database constitutes a part of the National Lung Cancer Registry. The Lung Cancer Registry is administered by the Institute of Tuberculo-sis and Pulmonary Diseases in Warsaw, Poland. Specifically, the (12) preprocessing is first performed on the attributes in Thoracic Surgery Data dataset including, maximum relevancy, minimum redundancy and maximum likelihood to obtain the relevant fea-tures. With the Maximum Likelihood Minimum Redundant at-tributes, the next process of ensemble classification is performed for improving diagnosing accuracy with minimum error and time.
    The experimental work of proposed approach is performed for many instances with respect to various numbers of patient data
    (13) with an objective to analyze its performance. The effectiveness of proposed approach is compared with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
    (Big data research in NSCLC) by Wu et al. [1], Boosted Support vector machine (BSVM) method by Zięba et al. [2], Nonparallel Plane Proximal Classifier (NPPC) by Ghorai et al. [3], and Multi-View Convolutional Neural Networks (MV-CNN) by Liu et al. [17] For the better understanding among the readers, the discussion on obtained results of the proposed approach is explained with different parameters such as-diagnosing accuracy, false positive rate or error rate, and classification time, F1-score.
    4.1. Scenario 1: Impact of diagnosing accuracy
    It is considered as one of the important parameters for early disease diagnosis. Higher the diagnosing accuracy, early disease diagnosis is said to be achieved and therefore the method is also said to be efficient. It provides evidence on how well a method precisely recognizes the disease and informs upcoming decisions about treatment for physicians or patients. It is given as follows:
    s s=1 From Eq. (14), the diagnosing accuracy ‘DA’ is arrived at based
    on the number of data correctly diagnosed as disease ‘CDdisease’ to the total samples ‘s’ considered for experimentation. It is
    measured in percentage. The values obtained through Eq. (14) are represented as shown in Fig. 3 for different patient data using the proposed WONN-MLB approach and compared hardwoods with the NSCLC and BSVM approaches. The sample calculation to measure the diagnosing accuracy using the aforementioned three methods is given as follows: